Teaching: Teachers are actively envolved in their respective courses
Research: Currently 13 projects is ongoing
Administration: Some teachers are also envolved in different administration position as offered by the university
The teachers and graduate students of the Department of Pathology have been actively involved in research activities supported by national organizations like BAU Research System (BAURES), University Grants Commission (UGC), Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC), Krishi Gobeshona Foundation (KGF), Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology (MoSICT), Bangladesh Academy of Science (BAS), Ministry of Education (MoE), Planning Commission, and international agencies like International Foundation for Science (IFS), Alexander von Humboldt (AvH) Foundation, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Third World Academy of Science (TWAS), and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
Over the years the department has created modern facilities and adopted state-of-the-art techniques for world class research work. Some of the research facilities and activities are highlighted below:
Histopathology and immunohistochemistry
Morphological pathology is the gateway of research in the field of pathology. The department has long experience of histopathology. Tissue samples from experimental animals or submissions from the field are routinely processed, sectioned, stained and studied in the department. For in situ localization of antigen in tissues, immunohistochemical staining is also done. The facility has recently been further improved with the addition of automated paraffin embedding system and digital photomicrography system.
Cell culture and virus propagation
Primary cell culture and continuous cell lines are routinely used in the Department of Pathology for isolation and propagation of viruses. At present primary chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture is used for propagation of infectious bursal disease virus and Newcastle disease virus. Among the continuous cell lines, Vero cells are being used for isolation and propagation of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus and BHK 21 cells for foot and mouth disease (FMD). Apart from cell culture, embryonated chicken eggs are also used for propagation of viruses.
With the objective studying pathogenesis and pathobiology of bacterial diseases, different bacteria are isolated, characterized and cultivated in the Department of Pathology. The bacteria currently being studied include Salmonella, E. coli, Avibacterium, Chlostridium, Bacillus tuberculosis, Bacillus anthracis, etc. Research is also in progress on Mycoplasma.
ELISA and Other Serological Test
Various serological tests like ELISA, haemagglutination-inhibition, agar gel immunodiffusion test are used in the department. Commercial ELISA kits are frequently used to detect either antigen or antibody. Often ELISA is also performed using reagents produced in-house.
PCR, Gene Cloning and Sequencing
Department of Pathology can take pride of pioneering research and diagnostic work based on PCR at Bangladesh Agricultural University. Conventional PCR and RT-PCR are being routinely used in the department for detecting gene segments of many viral, bacterial and parasitic pathogens including avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, Marek’s disease virus, PPR virus, FMD virus, mycoplasma, salmonella, Bacillus tuberculosis, Fasciola and Leishmania.
A new addition to the equipment pool of the department is the automated robotic nucleic acid extraction machine, which can extract DNA or RNA from the sample automatically.
The Department of Pathology has the facilities for cloning of PCR amplicons and preparation of DNA for sequencing. Sequencing services is usually outsourced. The department has the expertise for assembly, editing and analysis of gene sequences. As many as 84 partial or full-length sequences have been deposited to the GenBank from this department; these include 49 sequences of avian influenza viruses, 21 sequences of PPR viruses, 2 sequences of Newcastle disease viruses and 12 sequences of Fasciola. Moreover, 20 more sequences of Newcastle disease virus, 100 sequences of Fasciola, 22 sequences of TB, 12 sequences of FMD viruses and 6 sequences of Leishmania are ready for submission.
Several genome segments of avian influenza virus and PPR virus have been successfully cloned in plasmid vectors. Site-directed mutagenesis and reverse genetics experiments have been successfully conducted on infectious bursal disease virus and reverse genetics strain have been successfully regenerated. A significant recent addition to the capacity of the Department of Pathology is the Real-time PCR machine, which is the first such equipment at Bangladesh Agricultural University. Currently, real-time RT-PCR protocol is being used for avian influenza virus.
A portable LAMP PCR machine is also available in the department. Protocols are now being standardized for PPR and FMD virus detection. This machine can be used in the field for pen-side PCR test.
SERVICES TO FARMERS
Department of Pathology offers services to the farmers. Post mortem examination of animals and birds for diagnosis of diseases is a routine service.
Other services such as histopathology, serology, isolation and identification of microorganisms, disease investigation in an outbreak, etc. are also available on request depending on the feasibility of the action and availability of relevant expertise. Such a request is dealt with case-by-case basis through mutual agreement between the farmer and the department, particularly the concerned scientist or group of scientists.